Water-Based and Oil-Based Fluids Handbook of Machining with Grinding Wheels

In addition to the concentrates, water composite cooling lubricants contain a high percentage of water. The properties of this cooling lubricant group are, therefore, crucially influenced by the quality of the mixing water used, upon which special requirements must be placed concerning the nitrate, chloride, sulphate, and phosphate content, total hardness, pH-value, and the microbial Read more

CAST IRONS Handbook of Machining with Grinding Wheels

Iron or “ferrous” alloys are the most ubiquitous metals in industry today. They include numerous classes of cast iron, carbon steels, tool, alloy and stainless steels, as well as exotic materials for the aerospace, nuclear, and medical industries. In their oldest and simplest forms, iron alloys depend on their carbon content and composition. Cast iron Read more

SENSORS FOR MONITORING PROCESS VARIABLES. Introduction Handbook of Machining with Grinding Wheels

As with all manufacturing processes, ideally, the variables of greatest interest are measured directly as close to their origin as possible. Grinding processes are affected by a large number of input variables that each influence the resulting output quantities. Brinksmeier [1991] proposed a sys­tematic approach to distinguish between different types of quantities to describe a Read more