Curing Life Cycle and Sustainability of Abrasive Tools

The hardening process has to follow a defined temperature program (examples given in Fig. 3.8). Several chemical processes happen during curing depending on the actual temperature [COLL88, GARZ00, p. 331]: • 70-80 °C: The resin bond starts to flow and to transform into a fused mass. Water in the phenol resin evaporates and the resin Read more

Binding Materials for Pastes Life Cycle and Sustainability of Abrasive Tools

Binders for pastes include the following [MARI04, p. 442 f., BORK92, p. 24]: • Stearin—stearic acid, CH3(CH2)16COOH, white, solid, crystalline substance, melting point of 140 °C; Stearin is a good binder and brings cohesion and hardness to the paste. • Oleic acid—olein, unsaturated fatty acid, melting point of 15 °C; Oleic acid accelerates the polishing Read more

Porosity Life Cycle and Sustainability of Abrasive Tools

Pores are necessary for the transport of cooling lubricant to and chips away from the cutting point. They become more critical for high material removal rates and high-speed grinding processes to get enough cooling lubricant into the grindinggap. Grinding wheels with discontinuous cutting faces have similar effects as highly porous wheels [BORK92, p. 36]. Porosity Read more

Axiomatic Grinding Process Model Life Cycle and Sustainability of Abrasive Tools

Section 7.1 described different methods for evaluating sustainability and Sect. 7.2 derived the life cycle inventory for grinding to implement these methods. Data for the analysis is either measured empirically, estimated or obtained from databases. Ideally, fundamental process knowledge would allow calculating all input and output streams from physical and analytical models. The following study Read more

Life Cycle and Sustainability of Abrasive Tools Life Cycle and Sustainability of Abrasive Tools

This thesis was written mainly during my time as postdoc researcher at the Werkzeugmaschinenlabor (WZL) at the RWTH Aachen University, and at the Laboratory for Manufacturing and Sustainability (LMAS) at the University of California Berkeley. The research on the life cycle engineering of abrasive tools was funded by the Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft (DFG, German Research Foundation) Read more

Conclusion and Sustainability Model for Tool End of Life Life Cycle and Sustainability of Abrasive Tools

In general, the recycling or re-use of grinding tool components takes place in very few instances, although it is technically feasible in many cases. The reason lies in cost considerations. Today, the costs of recycling and re-use are higher than the benefits. This might change in the future because the decision is volatile and depends Read more