Рубрика: Life Cycle and Sustainability of Abrasive Tools


The hardening process has to follow a defined temperature program (examples given in Fig. 3.8). Several chemical processes happen during curing depending on the actual temperature [COLL88, GARZ00, p. 331]: • 70-80 °C: The resin bond starts to flow and to transform into a fused mass. Water in the phenol resin evaporates and the resin […]

Resin Bodies with Metallic Fillers and Non-metallic Fillers

Bakelite/aluminum or Bakelite/graphite bodies are elastic and tend to dampen vibrations from the grinding system [METZ86, p. 63, SEXT82]. This body type is connected to the abrasive layer by direct pressing without glueing [METZ86, p. 63]. Bakelite graphite or glass fiber reinforced resins can be pre-pressed to blanks and have the advantages of being light […]


Pores are necessary for the transport of cooling lubricant to and chips away from the cutting point. They become more critical for high material removal rates and high-speed grinding processes to get enough cooling lubricant into the grindinggap. Grinding wheels with discontinuous cutting faces have similar effects as highly porous wheels [BORK92, p. 36]. Porosity […]

Axiomatic Grinding Process Model

Section 7.1 described different methods for evaluating sustainability and Sect. 7.2 derived the life cycle inventory for grinding to implement these methods. Data for the analysis is either measured empirically, estimated or obtained from databases. Ideally, fundamental process knowledge would allow calculating all input and output streams from physical and analytical models. The following study […]