Machining High-Performance Ceramics Manufacturing Processes 2

With respect to their material characterisation, ceramics are subdivided into oxide, non-oxide and silicate ceramics. In the case of oxide ceramics, aluminium oxide and zirconium oxide or zirconia (ZrO2) represent the industrially most importantmaterials. Oxide ceramics have mostly ionic bonds (> 60 %), exhibit favourable sintering properties and are disadvantageous compared to other ceramics with Read more

External Cylindrical Grinding Manufacturing Processes 2

External cylindrical grinding is primarily used for machining rotation-symmetrical workpiece contours and is subdivided by the type of workpiece positioning and main feed directions (Fig. 6-34). Fig. 6-34. External cylindrical peripheral grinding In the case of external cylindrical grinding between centres, the workpiece is clamped in frontal centring components and impelled by means of a Read more

Natural Grit Materials Manufacturing Processes 2

The category of natural grinding resources comprises the grit materials quartz (flint), corundum, emery, garnet and diamond. Except for diamond, these materi­als are usually of insufficient strength, so they are of secondary importance in comparison with synthetic grit materials for most industrial purposes. A further reason for the exclusion of natural grit materials is the Read more

The Influence of Alloying Elements on Material Properties Manufacturing Processes 2

Alloying and trace elements can influence the machinability of steel by changing the composition or by forming lubricating or abrasive inclusions. In the following, the influence of the most often used elements on the machinability of steel materi­als will be described. Manganese Manganese improves hardenabillity and increases the strength of steels (ca. 100 N/mm2 per Read more

Supervision, Maintenance and Disposal Manufacturing Processes 2

The successfulness of the cooling lubricant chosen for a machining task depends upon its proper treatment. For this, constant inspection of the chemical, physical and biological properties of the cooling lubricant is required. Based on the results gained from monitoring the lubricant, necessary maintenance arrangements can be induced. The type and extent of supervision depends Read more

Vitrified Bonds Manufacturing Processes 2

Vitrified bonds are formed by mixtures from the natural silicates red and white clay, kaolin and feldspar, as well as quartz and, as an additive, frits [HADE66, PADB93]. Frits are glassy, previously melted and pulverised organic and inorganic mixes which serve as fluxing agents and give the vitrified bond certain properties. Among other things, they Read more

Non-Corrosion, Fireproof and High-Temperature Steels Manufacturing Processes 2

Non-rusting Chrome Steels Non-corrosion steels are distinguished by good resistance to chemically aggres­sive substances. In general, they have a chrome content of > 12 %. Non-rusting steels can be subdivided with respect to their structural components into ferritic and martensitic as well as into austenitic steels. Martensitic chrome steels contain about 0.4 — 1.2 % Read more

Kinematically Coupled Dressing Manufacturing Processes 2

In the case of so-called “milling dressing” or kinematically coupled dressing, a fixed rpm ratio is set between the grinding wheel and a diamond segment or PCD dressing roller [EICH97, MERZ94, SPIE92, WARN88]. For integral rpm ratios, the same areas of dressing roller and grinding wheel are always engaged. When segmented diamond dressing tools are Read more

Tool Testing Manufacturing Processes 2

In order to appraise and examine grinding wheels, numerous requirements are placed on the testing method used. The most important are that the testing method is damage-free, is independent of the attendant and provides reproducible results. These requirements are oriented by the conditions of the call for proposals of the Vereins Deutscher Werkzeugmaschinenfabriken e. V. Read more