Sustainability Case Studies Life Cycle and Sustainability of Abrasive Tools

8.1 Case Study on Conventional Abrasives Versus Superabrasives for Vitrified Bonded Tools The user can decide between conventional tools with corundum or silicon carbide or superabrasive tools with diamond or cubic boron nitride. Not only do the tools have different performance profiles, but also different embodied energies, which is important for accounting manufacturing energy to Read more

Sustainability Dimensions to Abrasive Grits Life Cycle and Sustainability of Abrasive Tools

2.10.1 Technological Dimension Table 2.7 summarizes the most important grit characteristics in grinding technol­ogy. In general, the grit type is chosen with regard to the machined material and the grit size is defined by the desired workpiece quality. The individual performance profiles of the grit types can be visualized in radar charts [HELL11]. The abrasive Read more

Shapes Life Cycle and Sustainability of Abrasive Tools

Tools are characterized by tool shape and abrasive layer composition. The tool shape specification follows DIN ISO 525 and DIN ISO 603, FEPA standards, ANSI B74.2 (conventional tools), or ANSI B74.3 (superabrasive tools) [DIN00a, DIN00b]. In addition, the wheel specification often includes company specific terms as well as the used standard. Table 4.1 shows typical Read more

Dressing of Superabrasive Tools Life Cycle and Sustainability of Abrasive Tools

The high wear resistance of superabrasive grits provides challenges to dressing procedures. CBN grinding wheels are commonly dressed with rotating diamond tools because of the lower toughness and hardness of CBN compared to diamond [MARI07]. However, the dressing forces for CBN are higher than for conventional wheels, which needs to be considered for the dressing Read more

Internally Cooled or Lubricated Wheels Life Cycle and Sustainability of Abrasive Tools

The pores of vitrified grinding wheels may be filled with lubricants such as sulfur, wax, or resin after sintering [MARI07, p. 113, KING86, p. 79]. Sulphur is in use as high-temperature extreme pressure lubricant in internal grinding operations in the bearing industry; yet, the use is declining because of environmental considerations [MARI07, p. 113]. Other Read more

Fillers in Resin Bonds Life Cycle and Sustainability of Abrasive Tools

Fillers in resin bonds have several tasks in both manufacturing phase and grinding operation: They induce porosity, reinforce bond properties, change aesthetics, and more [FRAC10]. Common fillers in resin bonded grinding tools are cryolite (Na3AlF6), pyrite (FeS2), zinc sulfide (ZnS), lithopone (ZnSBaSO4), potassium fluoroborate and potassium chloride (KAlF4, K3AlF6), potassium sulphate (K2SO4), and mixtures of Read more

Lapping Life Cycle and Sustainability of Abrasive Tools

Lapping is a mainly room-bound process with geometrically undefined cutting edges. It is defined as a cutting process with loose grits distributed in a fluid or paste, so called lapping slurry, guided by a counterpart, which is usually shape-transferring (also called lapping tool). The cutting paths of the individual grits are ideally undirected [KLOC09, p. Read more