Peter Ritter von Rittinger Peter Ritter von Rittinger was an outstanding mineral scientist whose equipment inven­tions and mathematical descriptions of unit operations established mineral processing as a modern technology (Steiner 2000; Vozar and Kunnert 1972). He was the first to pro­vide a sound mathematical basis for the physics of wet classification and gravity separa­tion processes, Read more

Hammer Mills The History of Grinding

In 1830 a patent was issued in United States for a machine …which comprised a wooden box containing a cylindrical drum, apparently made of wood, on which iron knobs or hammers were fastened. The expectation was that this drum, when revolved at 350 rpm, would shatter the rock fed into the box. (McGrew 1950) This Read more

Classifying Liners The History of Grinding

Figure 7.18 shows three types of classifying liners. As clinker grinding mills increased in length, it became necessary to devise a system by which the coarse balls were continu­ally thrown back to where the coarsest particles of ore were at the feed end of the com­partment. Hardinge had designed his “tricone” mill for this purpose, Read more

ANFO: POWERFUL AND SAFE The History of Grinding

As Table 10.1 shows, there was a spectacular rise in consumption of ammonium nitrate explosives during the 1960s. This was the start of the ammonium nitrate-fuel oil (ANFO) era in industrial explosives, which is expected to continue well into the future. Ammonium nitrate was made by J. R. Glauber in 1659 (DuPont 1980). Its explosive Read more